A PERICARDIAL CELL STORY

I am a pericardial cell in the model organism D. Melanogaster and I reside in the heart (dorsal vessel)  of this organism.

My origin begins not at the very beginning but during the first few days of my organism’s development. In Drosophila the embryo is an undifferentiated cell and thus my beginning. The mesoderm gives rise to the heart as well as somatic and visceral muscles through a very complex process during the life cycle. A series of genes are also used during this process.

droslifecycle

 

Fig 1: Life cycle of Drosophila.

http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/Chap13/Chapter_13A.html

According to Thomas B. Brody (2006), about 180-189 minutes after fertilisation (stage 6-7), gastrulation occurs to form the mesoderm (where I come from!), endoderm and ectoderm. During early stage 12 onward heart (dorsal vessel) development begins from specialisations of the mesoderm into its destined tissues.

1-s2.0-S157433490718011X-gr3

Fig 2: Mesoderm in Drosophila Melanogaster.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S157433490718011X

From stage 13 the primordium of the dorsal vessel  moves dorsally with the folded ectoderm and two rows of cells which have different characteristics are formed: the cardioblasts that form the dorsal vessel proper and the pericardial cells (that’s ME!) that line the dorsal vessel on either side.

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Fig 3: A look at the formation of the heart ( dorsal vessel) in drosophila.

Drosophila heart development begins during embryonic stage 13 by specification of two contralateral rows of cardiogenic mesoderm and formation of cardioblasts. Cardioblasts migrate towards the midline at stage 13–14 and form a simple linear closed tube with a central lumen by stage 16–17, subsequently differentiating into more mature cardiomyocytes. The pericardial cells line the sides of the cardioblasts.

http://www.sdbonline.org/fly/atlas/4647.htm

As a pericardial cell I have a very important job within my organism i.e to protect it from harmful substances that may be in the haemolymph. My role is to detoxify the haemolymph from complex and toxic compounds that might be present. My special organelles called lysosomes break down these compounds so they can be used in my cytoplasm without harming my organism. Isn’t it EXCITING!!!

dros

Fig. 4. Left: highly ordered structure of the Drosophila heart is well suited to identify even subtle differences in morphology (dMef2-positive muscle nuclei in blue; pericardin-positive pericardial cell membranes in brown surrounding the blue myocardial cells). Right: schematic cross-section through the heart illustrating its simple cellular arrangement

Taken from :http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378111904004597

This is my fate! This is my destiny. This is what I want to be when I become a developed cell.

I am a large cell that run along the sides of the the dorsal vessel on either side. I contain a series of organelles within my cell that would help me function on a daily basis; lysosomes (mentioned above. I have many of these because they are important to my function), vacuole, golgi apparatus which processes and distributes molecules, rough ER a site for protein synthesis, smooth ER  the site for lipid and carb metabolism, mitochondria- my power house, ribosomes- protein synthesis and most importantly my nucleus which houses my DNA, it is also my control center.

So you see my fellow bloggers: I am a Pericardial cell.

 

References:

http://flymove.uni-muenster.de/Stages/StaGes.html

http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/10/24/3183.full.pdf

http://dev.biologists.org/content/124/15/2915.full.pdf

http://www.sdbonline.org/fly/aimain/2stages.htm

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17987318

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0020179087900175

http://www.sdbonline.org/fly/atlas/4647.htm

http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/Chap13/Chapter_13A.html

 

I am a Model!!!

Model Organisms

A model organism is one that has already been investigated and its information is already known such as biological processes and relationship between structure and function. This information can be used to develop theories and even be used in medicine to cure diseases etc.

Drosophila_melanogaster

Fig 1- Drosophila Melanogaster.

Taken from http://rice.bio.indiana.edu:7082/images/Drosophilidae/Drosophila_melanogaster_m/index.html

Drosophila Melanogaster

Drosophila Melanogaster is a small organism that feeds on spoilt fruit. It is a model organism mainly because they can be easily bred and it is inexpensive to do so. Their life cycle is also short lasting about 14 days. Yes 14 days! This short life span allows researchers to acquire their information quickly. The relationship between fly and human genome is close making it easy for geneticists to analyse and interpret therefore allowing them to understand the human genome better. 

drosophila lifecycle

FIg 2. Drosophila Melanogaster life cycle.

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9871&page=162

References

http://genome.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_WTD020807.html

Ok. Yr 2 we made it!!!……. but now another assignment…

Ok guys. So our Cells and Developmental Biology lecturer loved the Biochem blogging experience soo much that she too wants us students to complete another exercise. My first thought was “Hmmmmmmmmmmmmmm………ANOTHER BLOG!!! NOOOOOOOOOOO!!!!!.” But hey! You know what the first one wasn’t that bad so I consider this a challenge.

As far as I know at this point the details of the project is to pretend that you are a cell and you are supposed to document the different things that are happening within ‘you’. Sounds wierd huh?! But we are ready!!!

BIOL 2061 Lets do this!!!!

Goodbye…. for now

Ok so this is my last post. Peeps I must say job well done. This course has been soo much fun for me. I would not mind repeating it.

Mr. Matthew I thank you for your patience and guidance. You brought us through something we had no idea what to expect. 

Although Mrs. Hosein is not on the blog I must say thank you to her as well for an exciting laboratory session. To my fellow students we had fun, we cried, we got stressed but the light at the end of the tunnel is in sight. Let us join forces to ensure all extreamly high grades for this semmester. 

As I have learned from a group of ants… There is power in numbers!

I salut you all. Have a good night.

BiosJayChemist is out.

goodbye37

Lipids

Random facts about Lipids

Lipids are compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents.

Saturated fat has no C=C double bond. All its carbon are bonded to hydrogen. While an unsaturated fat has at least 1 C=C double bond.

sat

Functions of fats include; source of energy, energy reserve and it provides insulation to the body, important component of cell membranes .

As the chain on the fatty acid increases the melting point also increases but the solubility decreases.

The presence of double bonds lowers the melting point.

http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/biochemistry/biochemi.htm